In other words, during World War II, the sex ratio increased by three-quarters of a 10th of a boy per births. Other forms had spaces for height, weight, chest girth, vision for left and right eye, as well as other medical measurements. Neither weight nor age independently predicts survival once height is controlled weight: Dependent variable The dependent variable of interest here is whether the soldier survived the war 0 if he survived the war, 1 if he was killed. It, therefore, appears that the very slight 2.
While female fitness variance is much smaller than male fitness variance among mammalian species, there is still variance among females, and some women do better than others, in terms of the quality, if not quantity, of their offspring. Unfortunately, the exact number of adult males in Scotland and Ireland in is not available. WO contains the records of enlisted men and non-commissioned officers only; it excludes the records of commissioned officers. For example, MacMahon and Pugh report that the sex ratio among whites in the USA increased from the baseline of The fundamental assumption underlying the TWH is that if males are expected to attain greater reproductive success than females, for whatever reason, then parents may have more sons than daughters. In addition to height, weight and chest girth, I recorded the soldier's age at enlistment and marital status 1 if currently married, 0 otherwise. However, there is very little human evidence for the maternal dominance hypothesis in general, and as an explanation for the returning soldier effect in particular. Graffelman and Hoekstra's more recent and comprehensive analysis of all belligerent nations in both World Wars produces the same results. It therefore follows that, if at least one-seventh of British male population experienced combat duties in World War I, then the one-inch height difference between the surviving and fallen soldiers can account for all the excess boys born during and immediately after the war. While it remains unclear why taller soldiers are more likely to survive battle, I predict that the returning soldier effect will not happen in more recent and future wars. Others have since documented the phenomenon repeatedly Lowe and McKeown, ; van der Broek, ; Ellis and Bonin, Unfortunately, this question cannot be answered with historical data from the UK from the same period. Dependent variable The dependent variable of interest here is whether the soldier survived the war 0 if he survived the war, 1 if he was killed. To my knowledge, Add Health is the only data set with a large, nationally representative sample of a population, in which researchers measure respondents' height rather than relying on their self-reports. Height distributions of surviving soldiers top panel and fallen soldiers bottom panel , British troops during the World War I The solid vertical line indicates the mean height of surviving soldiers None of my substantive conclusions below change as a result of using any of these alternative samples. The reader should keep in mind that my choice of the mean difference deliberately underestimates the potential consequences for offspring sex ratio. If the height advantage of surviving soldiers over fallen soldiers in the British armed forces during World War I generalizes to the soldiers of other belligerent nations in both World Wars, then the phenomenon, combined with the tendency of taller parents to have more sons, can potentially explain the returning soldier effect, where more boys are born during and immediately after wars. The top panel shows the distribution of height among soldiers who survived World War I, and the bottom panel shows the distribution of height among soldiers who were killed. The gTWH would therefore predict that taller and heavier parents will have a higher-than-expected number of sons, and shorter and lighter parents will have a lower-than-expected number of sons or a higher-than-expected number of daughters. I have therefore decided to code each soldier's record into a computer file, starting with the first record on the first reel A1 , in strict alphabetical order by the last name, without skipping any record. One of these heritable traits which has been shown to affect secondary sex ratios is body size: I have thus transcribed the first records. In a surprising number of cases, the soldier deserted the unit. First, taller and heavier soldiers, especially during the less prosperous times of the early 20th century, may have been physically stronger and more fit, as well possibly as genetically and developmentally healthier.
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