The first kind is the individual characteristics of the childbearing-age women, which includes age, the square root of age, age at first childbirth, year of the first childbirth, Hukou type, and education level. There are great differences in geographic location, natural environment, social and economic development and education and cultural background between the regions. In recent years, members of Congress have introduced federal legislation that would prohibit abortions based on the sex or race of the fetus. The female phenotype in contrast develops in the absence of high concentrations of sex steroids. Antiabortion legislators and activists claim that abortion providers are targeting Latina and African-American women in their communities, relying on statistics showing that these women of color have higher rates of abortions than white women. In some countries, such as those in East and South Asia, the widespread practice of sex selection has resulted in skewed sex ratios with a higher number of boys than girls at birth. Attitudes towards fertility, subjective norms and other factors all contribute significantly to the discrepancy between fertility intention and behavior Luo and Mao, In the third stage, the sampling unit was women of childbearing age within a household. The results not only validate the correlation of fertility intention with having a second child empirically, even in the low fertility intention and stringent birth control context of China, but also show that women with a preference for sons were less likely to have a second child.
This model showed that a greater intended number of children was associated with higher actual fertility levels. Women with son preference turn to sex-selective abortion to ensure that their first child is a son, thus reducing the likelihood of a second child and decreasing the fertility rate. Does son preference mean that families go on to have a second child, and so increase the macro fertility rate? Thus, the preference for sons is often considered to be a major obstacle to fertility decline. It is well documented that the intention to have another child is strongly correlated with future fertility behavior Schoen et al. Multiple states have implemented counseling requirements for women undergoing abortion to include information on perinatal hospice services. This principle must be accepted cautiously at the present time because the proximate mechanisms that might explain this connection between the nature of the sex chromosomes in males and females and the process of behavioral differentiation have still not been identified. Ever since , the crude birth rate and natural growth rate have been slightly lower than national rates, the sex ratio is higher than normal but below the national level. A second childbirth is more likely to occur in rural families in which the first born is a girl Qian, Middle-ranked economic development, a fertility rate close to the national average, average fertility intention, and representative birth control policy all make Shaanxi Province a suitable site to examine the correlations between having a second child, son preference and fertility intention. Is fertility intention still a strong predictor of a second child? Age at first childbirth is associated with fertility behavior and fertility rate Kohler at al. A total of individuals were interviewed in this survey, with valid questionnaires recovered. The other is an indicator variable to show whether the second childbirth event occurred: For example, in reptiles, the first identified event signaling sexual differentiation is the increase in aromatase expression in the female gonad that leads to an increase in estrogen concentration that will by itself transform the undifferentiated gonad into an ovary. The processes are simply mirror images of one another in the two classes Figure 3. And for son preference, how to measure son preference is controversial. Attitudes towards fertility, subjective norms and other factors all contribute significantly to the discrepancy between fertility intention and behavior Luo and Mao, In the early birth control studies, sociologists urged biologists to discover methods for sex identification to help people have offspring of the desired gender through human intervention in fertility and thereby reduce the fertility levels Cohen et al. There are great differences in geographic location, natural environment, social and economic development and education and cultural background between the regions. In the survey, we asked interviewees to look back at their childbearing history, including the ending time and outcomes of every pregnancy, and this information enabled us to calculate the survival time, which was structured in person-months format. The first kind is the individual characteristics of the childbearing-age women, which includes age, the square root of age, age at first childbirth, year of the first childbirth, Hukou type, and education level. Thus, a son preference increases the number of childbirths and fertility levels Park and Cho, ; Chen and Jin, Our study clarifies empirically the disputes as to whether son preference increases or decreases the number of families having a second child, and how this affects the fertility rate. These conclusions are derived from studies in which the embryonic hormonal milieu was manipulated by the injection of estrogens in males and blockade of estrogen production i. Researchers have generally considered that the ideal number of children reflects personal values and views on fertility and often used the ideal number of children as the intended number of children Zheng, a , b.
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